If deemed unsatisfactory, the proposal may be referred back for resubmission by the end of the summer following the sixth semester. Students who have not presented their thesis proposal to their dissertation committee by the end of the summer following the sixth semester shall be considered not in good standing and may be ineligible for further financial aid from the department. Students must petition the department in writing for any postponement of the submission of their thesis proposal beyond the end of the sixth semester.
As the research progresses, if unexpected discoveries about the nature of the sources or other unforeseen developments occur, the student and thesis director should confer in case redefinition of the topic seems necessary.
Such evidence will normally be provided in informal consultations between student and thesis director; if the student is absent from the campus, it should be provided by letter at least once each semester. All students will normally be expected to give a presentation before the History Workshop or other similar group of all or part of the dissertation or other research.
The doctoral dissertation should be completed within four years after the student passes the preliminary examination.
Exceptions to this rule will be granted only upon a written petition by the student to the Department. A faculty member has the right to refuse to direct a thesis without stating specific reasons. However, once he or she has agreed in writing to direct a thesis, the directorship may not be relinquished unless both the student and the Department are informed of the reasons in writing. A student may ask the Department to appoint a new thesis director at any time.
A thesis director leaving the University should state in writing whether he or she wishes to continue to direct doctoral theses already in progress. The Geography and Spatial Sciences GSS Program sponsors research on the geographic distributions and interactions of human, physical, and biotic systems on Earth. Investigators are encouraged to propose plans for research about the nature, causes, and consequences of human activity and natural environmental processes across a range of scales.
GSS gives awards each year. Applicants need not be citizens of the United States; however, they must be candidates for the doctoral degree at a graduate school within the United States. These fellowships are designated for graduate students in any stage of Ph.
The fellowships, however, may not be used to defray tuition costs or be held concurrently with any other major fellowship or grant. Applicants may be of any nationality but must be enrolled in a U. Proposed research may be conducted at a single or multiple sites abroad, in the U. Research grants are awarded primarily to highly qualified PhD candidates who would like to conduct research in Germany. This grant is open to applicants in all fields. However, there are restrictions for those in healthcare related fields, including dentistry, medicine, pharmacy, and veterinary medicine; please contact the DAAD New York office if your academic pursuits are in these fields.
Applications accepted in November for month and short-term grants, and in May for short-term grants. The fellowship is for months, provides travel, health insurance and a monthly stipend of 1, Euros. The fellowship lasts for months and provides travel, health insurance and a monthly stipend of 1, Euros. Candidates do not have to be U. The program offers support for graduate students, faculty, Ph.
Scholars in the social sciences and humanities are eligible. Fellows can be doctoral students based at any academic institution in the United States and will be selected from a range of academic disciplines. Applicants must be a U. Kim Foundation provides fellowships and grants to support graduate students and young scholars who are working in the history of science and technology in East Asia from the beginning of the 20th century, regardless of their nationality, origins, or gender. Comparative studies of East Asia and the West as well as studies in related fields mathematics, medicine and public health are also welcome.
The Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, an independent research library in Philadelphia, accepts applications for short- and long-term fellowships in the history of science, technology, medicine, and industry. Applications come from a wide range of disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. Awards are made in all fieds. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German instead of a general degree for all fields e.
The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations are available, many of them rare or no longer in use. For addressing, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e. Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However leaving out the designation is only allowed, when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which has to be indicated by Dr.
Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents. The title is not mandatory. The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned. Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as Dres. Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e.
In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis Inauguraldissertation , completing a course of study, and the habilitation thesis Habilitationsschrift , which opens the road to a professorship.
It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally. It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities facultas docendi. The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject venia legendi. This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining Privatdozent PD and employment as a full university Professor.
With the introduction of Juniorprofessuren —around —as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities with tenure , Habilitation is no longer the only university career track.
In India , doctorates are offered by universities. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees.
Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most North Indian universities, coursework duration and thesis is 2 years and in most South Indian universities is 3 years. The most common doctoral degree is Ph. Sc Doctor of Science. Nationally important schools such as Indian Institute of Management ,  National Institute of Industrial Engineering  call their doctoral programmes fellow programmes.
D degree Doctor of Pharmacy takes 6 years. Italy uses a three-level degree system. This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a " dottorato di ricerca " Ph. Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr. Many professional titles, such as ingegnere engineer are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination esame di stato , and registration in the relevant professional association.
The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Until the s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals. It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities.
This curriculum is professionally oriented,  but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license. All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam Shihou shiken , attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi. The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma not a degree.
In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the s. In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a kandidaats candidate diploma in two years. The candidate diploma was all but abolished by It used to be attained after completion of the majority of courses of the academic study usually after completion of course requirements of the third year in the program , after which the student was allowed to begin work on their doctorandus thesis.
Following the Bologna protocol the Dutch adopted the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees. Dutch university programmes tend to include advanced subject matter that e. Research can also be conducted without official research assistant status, for example through a business-sponsored research laboratory. The promotor professor determines whether the thesis quality suffices and can be submitted to the committee of experts.
A committee of experts in the field review the thesis. Failures at this stage are rare because supervisors withhold inadequate work. The supervisors and promotor lose prestige among their colleagues should they allow a substandard thesis to be submitted. After reviewer approval, the candidate publishes the thesis generally more than copies and sends it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense.
The degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session, in which the thesis is defended against critical questions of the "opposition" the review committee.
Failure during this session is possible, but rare. Before the defense there may or may not be a public presentation, lasting 10 minutes e. Eindhoven University to exactly half hour e. The actual defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot 45 minutes to 1 hour exactly depending on the University after which the defense is stopped by the bedel who closes the process.
In research doctorates the degree is always Ph. Although the title doctor is informally called Ph. All other university titles B. Any person thus can adopt the Ph. Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr.
Those who have multiple doctor dr. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph. In the Russian Empire the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" doktor nauk marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination. The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in , abolished in , and revived in the USSR in Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree R. They are granted by the University on behalf of the King.
Its Diploma has the force of a public document. All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages:. Since September and regulated by Royal Decree R. In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed.
The Apto Cum Laude mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote. Votes are verified by the University.
A doctorate is required in order to teach at the University. Complutense University was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until , when the University of Salamanca joined in commemoration of its septecentenary. In , the right was extended to all Spanish universities. All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain according to the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, ".
The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced.
The first higher doctorate was the Doctor of Science at Durham University , introduced in The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established. Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil. Today, except for those awarded honoris causa , all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main and in many cases only component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.
UK doctorates are categorised as: These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs. However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a viva voce oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external.
Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two. Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead.
While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis or equivalent alone.
Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate. The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the habilitation in some European countries. However, the purpose of the award is significantly different.
While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research. In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded not including honorary doctorates the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: Most British universities award degrees honoris causa to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field.
However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University D. The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study.
Multiple professional degrees use the term "doctor" in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine , but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph.
In legal studies the Ph. Many universities offer Ph. The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy Ph. This degree was first awarded in the U. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M. The median number of years for completion of US doctoral degrees is seven. While not authoritative, the International Affairs Office of the U. Department of Education listed over 20 "frequently" awarded research doctorate titles identified by the National Science Foundation NSF in a document as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph.
The Doctor of Music and Doctor of Industrial Technology were removed in , after the study evaluation identified that these were fully professional, rather than research-based, doctorates. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US. Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B.
In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the Doctor of Audiology in
Aleane Webb Dissertation Research Fellowship, administered through the Graduate School, provides up to $ to several Duke graduate students to help them defray the cost of purchasing microfilm and other research aids needed in their dissertation work.
The capstone, and most critical, project of the PhD program is the doctoral dissertation. The series of courses within the department dealing with professional development concludes with the dissertation prospectus seminar, which students take in the sixth semester, if they have passed their examination.
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The dissertation represents the culmination of years of graduate training. For many, the pages of the dissertation are stained with blood, sweat and tears. And coffee. And more tears. Since , when the first dissertation was presented to the history department for doctoral qualification at Yale, hundreds of scholars have since followed that same . Sample Doctoral Dissertation Proposals. History of Ideas. Public Voices, Public Selves: Self-Fashioning and Gender in the Eighteenth Century. Studies in Literature. The Quest for a Home: Acculturation, Social Formations, and Agency in British Fiction, Faculty/Staff Computer Help;.